Kentucky to the best of our knowledge is the only colony, district and state that was created, founded and pioneered by colonels. Kentucky common law dates back to before the founding of the United States in 1775 under the Kentucke Magna Charta written and signed by Col. Daniel Boone and Col. Judge Richard Henderson.
Kentucky Colonel (Honorable Title)
Kentucky Colonel is the highest title of honor bestowed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky today. Honorary commissions for Kentucky colonels are given by the governor and the secretary of state to individuals in recognition of noteworthy accomplishments, contributions, and outstanding service to community, state, or nation.
Today, the Governor of Kentucky bestows the honor of a colonel's commission, through the issuance of letters patent. The commission is a legal act of the Office of the Governor and lifetime appointment as a civilian officer.
At the time the Kentucky territory was established the highest civilian and militia officer or authority was none other than the colonel; because of the time that the commission was granted and the events in the Revolutionary United States and in government some say the first Kentucky Colonel was: Col. Daniel Boone who was commissioned to build the Wilderness Road by the Transylvania Company 1775; Col. John Bowman, commissioned by Gov. Patrick Henry of Virginia to form a government in Kentucky County 1776; or Col. Percival Pierce Butler, commissioned by Gov. Isaac Shelby as his aide-de-camp in 1793 after Kentucky became a state in 1792. Most believe that Col. John Bowman is the best answer despite very little being known about him as he was thoroughly in charge of Kentucky in 1777 and respected by everyone; others believe it was Col. Daniel Boone because Boone was Bowman's superior in 1775 when they founded Transylvania together and incorporated its many laws and charter.
What is a Kentucky Colonel?
There is some debate as to who the first Kentucky colonel was, many say it was Daniel Boone (Kentucky's First Settler), other historians say it was Richard Henderson who commissioned Col. Boone and along with other colonels that founded the Transylvania Colony at Boonesborough on the Kentucky River in 1775, which today, is part of Madison County, Kentucky. 'Kentucke' as it was called then, was the area North of Boonesborough on the Northern side of the Kentucky River, by December of 1776 it included most of Transylvania as well. The act created by the founding of Transylvania at the Convention was attended by 13 (or more) colonels and established the Kentucky Magna Charta.
Technically speaking, the first person appointed as a "Kentucky Colonel" was Colonel John Bowman in 1776, he was commissioned by the Governor of the Colony of Virginia, Patrick Henry who designated the territory from the Ohio River south to the 36° 30′ parallel starting at the Cumberland Gap as a county of Virginia. Col. Bowman was also present at Boonesborough in 1775 for the Transylvania Convention. He was warranted with land and the duty to establish a government in Kentucky.
Colonel Bowman's Commission
“You are therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of Colonel of the Militia, by doing and performing all Manner of Things thereunto belonging; and you are to pay a ready Obedience to all Orders and Instructions which from Time to Time you may receive from the Convention, Privy Council, or any of your Superior Officers, agreeable to the Rules & Regulations of the Convention, or General Assembly, and to require all Officers and Soldiers under your command to be obedient and to aid you in the Execution of this Commission according to the Intent & Purpose thereof. Given under my Hand & Seal,
-Williamsburg this 21st day of December 1776, P. Henry, Jr.
Another Historical Account
According to the Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels, the first Kentucky Colonel commissioned was Charles S. Todd in 1813, however when we checked with history only Richard Mentor Johnson could be identified as being commissioned that year which was done by the State Legislature not the governor, apparently Charles Todd was commissioned, but not until 1815 under General Duncan McArthur as the Inspector General of the Michigan Territory and retired from the U.S. Army with the rank of colonel when he returned to Frankfort. (see below)
Military or Honorary
The first honorary commission of a Colonel as an "Aide-de-Camp" by a Kentucky Governor is still unknown exactly. According to The Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels, "Governor Isaac Shelby bestowed his future son-in-law Charles S. Todd the title of colonel in 1813 as his aide-de-camp after the War of 1812 during peacetime. However this account is debunked as pseudohistory, Col. Todd's biography, U.S Army records, and the Kentucky State archives.
During the War of 1812, Governor Col. Isaac Shelby had two aides one was General John Adair and the other was Major John Crittenden. It is also known that Governor Isaac Shelby appointed Percival Pierce Butler as Kentucky's first Adjutant General, with the rank of colonel, and as a military aide this was in 1793.
Earlier in 1813 however, the Kentucky Legislature commissioned Richard M. Johnson designating him officially as a colonel to form a mounted militia, making him the highest military officer in Kentucky at the time. It was not until 1895, the Commonwealth officially adopted the practice of naming individual civilians and recognizing those who were known to already be using the title as aristocrats, land holders and veteran, of the Civil War.
During the Civil War there were many militia colonel commissions issued by Senators to both the Union and Confederate sides in the state which was divided, but aside from these commissions many landowners were already known as colonels.
In 1861, Col. John Marshall Harlan on the behalf of President Lincoln issued uniforms and the rank of colonel to many lawyers, physicians and business owners in Louisville to create a presence and sentiment of Union control in the state, they were commissioned to wear the Union Uniform at home and to work. Likewise, as many know Confederate President Jefferson Davis was from Kentucky and led the Rebels to the South, he also created colonels.
Officially only the head of state or a member of the legislature could issue a military commission; while traditionally, a colonel could still make another person a colonel if he had a company or a militia under common law, this Virginia common-law colonelcy ended in 1895.
Governor Col. William O'Connell Bradley began the tradition which remains today by recognizing his political allies, friends and others by establishing an honor guard staff which were presented at the Kentucky Derby and also recognized uniformed Kentucky colonels at the Capitol of the Commonwealth in Frankfort. Prior to this in 1890, Opie Read popularized the ideal of the Kentucky colonel with his book, "A Kentucky Colonel" which portrayed colonels as distinguished, refined Southern gentlemen, usually land holders further popularizing the ideal prior to becoming officially adopted by the state in 1895 resulting in the first official civil award and commission authorized by the Commonwealth that remains today.